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Angela Underdown and Aoife Twohig

Using Video Interaction Guidance with Families with Pre-term Babies.

In this workshop we will explore how video interaction guidance can be used to support the relationships between parents and their infants who were born 8 weeks or more before their due date.

We will reflect on the special support needs of families with preterm infants.  A pilot study that offered families VIG when their babies were discharged home from the neonatal unit will be described.  We will consider implications for future studies using VIG.

In addition, Aoife will discuss her research implementing VIG in a NICU with preterm infants and their parents to support the developing parent-infant relationship.

Dr Angela Underdown is Deputy Director of Warwick Infant and Family Wellbeing Unit (WIFWU) which brings together expertise with the goal of providing research, training and innovation in ways to support parenting during pregnancy and the first two years of life. Angela is particularly interested in the evaluation of interventions that aim to promote early infant-parent relationships. She has evaluated the processes and effects of infant massage programmes and explored community support using video interaction guidance for parents with infants born pre-term. Angela has recently written and produced a series of film clips about bonding, reflective function, baby sleep/wake states and interaction during the perinatal period. She has also written, Baby Steps, an interactive 9 session relationships based programme to support men and women in the emotional transition to parenthood. This programme starts antenatal and aims to support vulnerable parents to build healthy relationships with their infants. This programme has been successfully developed and evaluated by the NSPCC. Angela teaches on a wide range of post-graduate courses aimed at promoting healthy development within early parent-infant relationships. Angela is a member of the Association of Infant Mental Health (AIMH) Committee and Infant Mental Health Advisor to the Institute of Health Visiting (IHV).

Dr. Aoife Twohig, MRCPsych, MSc. CAPP, Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist and Child Psychotherapist.

Aoife has trained in Child Psychiatry and Child Psychotherapy in Ireland and has a special interest in both promoting and working clinically to support infant mental health. She is in her final year PhD student in University College Dublin and also works in a Paediatric Liaison service. Her research using VIG with preterm infants has been supported by the National Children's Research Centre, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin.

Penny Rackett and Marij Eliens

Using VIG in the perinatal period with high risk families: projects from the Netherlands and the UK.

It's never too early to start: a perinatal approach.  Marij Eliens will talk about Baby Extra, a successful programme in the Netherlands where work begins antenatally and continues with filming from the moment of birth; and Penny Rackett will share the Getting To Know You project, inspired by Marij's work.

Penny Rackett is a Specialist Early Years Educational Psychologist and VIG Supervisor working for Suffolk Community Educational Psychology Service.  She has a long standing interest in Infant Mental Health, has run the Eastern Region Perinatal and Infant Mental Health Network for some years and is part of the AIMH committee: she likes finding different ways of using VIG to support babies and their families.

Marij Eliens

See Speakers Biographies

Kevin Ball and Stavros Nicolas Stavros

Reflections on a VIG training journey in two London NHS parent infant Projects

Kevin and Stavros plan to show part of their journeys through VIG training as Parent Infant Psychotherapist and Clinical Psychologist. They work in different London NHS trusts and have been carrying out parent-infant work pre and post VIG.

Kevin plans to show how he not only uses VIG to work with mothers and babies, but also aims to demonstrate the versatility of VIG by exploring how VIG can be used in the wider context. Kevin has used VIG in child protection work and plans to show some video work of an actual child protection conference.

Stavros will reflect on a personal level about his VIG training journey and how it has shaped his clinical practice working with parents and infants.

Kevin Ball works as a Parent Infant Psychotherapist in a Perinatal Parent Infant Mental Health Service in the North East London Foundation Trust. He has worked there since 2007 .  He works with mothers, fathers and babies where there is  a perinatal mental illness and/or there are attachment and bonding issues with the baby.

Previously he worked at Guys and St Thomas's Hospital in the Dept of Palliative Medicine and some of his work involved working with families where one member has a terminal illness.  Often this work involved working with parents and children around adjusting to the terminal illness. Part of this work was also supervising the Perinatal Psychotherapist in the Evelina Childrens Hospital. During this time he trained as a family therapist in the Institute of Family Therapy in London. Before this Kevin trained as a Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist at the Philadelphia Association and worked as a therapist in one of the therapeutic communities where residents had a diagnosis of severe mental illness.

Kevin is a  Psychoanalytic and Systemic Psychotherapist working as a Perinatal Psychotherapist in the NHS.

Stavros Stavrou is a Principal Clinical Psychologist working in the Parent Infant Psychology Service at the Whittington Health NHS Trust.

Whittington Health is a provider of integrated acute and community health care to local people with services across Islington, Haringey and at the Whittington Hospital. The Parent Infant Psychology Service (PIPS) is an early intervention and prevention service offering clinical interventions to parents and infants aged 0-2 living in Haringey, London. PIPS also offers an indirect consultation service to members of staff where there are attachment related/mental health concerns for children aged 2-5 years.

In his role as Principal Clinical Psychologist in PIPS, Stavros offers clinical interventions to parents and infants, aimed at improving the parent infant relationship. He also supervises Clinical Psychology trainees and provides consultation and training on infant mental health issues to health visitors, midwives and children centre staff.

In addition to the above Stavros has just started in his role as Psychological Consultant to the London Borough of Hackney Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) team.

Monika Celebi

Integrating VIG and Watch Wait Wonder in Parent Infant Groups

Parent infant groups can provide an attuned, empathic and containing environment where we integrate Watching and Waiting (being attentive), positive Visual feedback- (benign mirroring) and Wondering: reflecting on meaning and developing mind-mindedness. In such an ambience moments of vitality, moments of connectedness, which are experienced as visceral and spontaneous, can happen. This gives further opportunities to develop new ways of understanding and responding to baby's communication.

These groups are currently taking place in 5 Children Centers in and around Oxford. The workshop will outline the theoretical framework, show video examples from groups and talk about some of the challenges of using technology in an already busy parent infant group environment, for instance how we use the camera has an impact, as has the limited attention span for feedback one can realistically expect.

Monika Celebi is a free lance Video Interaction Guider, AVIGUK Advanced Supervisor, and Trainer, UKCP Registered Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist; Senior Registered Dance Movement Psychotherapist, MA, BA. She has pioneered groups at the Oxford Parent Infant Project over the last 10 years and developed the OXPIP Parent Infant Group Training for Early Years Professionals. She is involved in developing VIG projects together with a wide range of professionals in Tower Hamlets, the Mental Health foundation and the Home Counties.

Maddie Marczak and Francesca Nolan

Getting VIG established as an intervention in the perinatal period: Initial multi-agency reflections of the benefits and challenges of this process

This workshop will present multi-agency reflections about the successes and challenges of implementation of a VIG care pathway for infants in Central Manchester. Particularly, reflections will focus on the challenges of ensuring that appropriate families are identified for VIG intervention and questions posed regarding how we make clinical decisions about which families are intervention ready, within the context of postnatal depression and maternal mental health concerns as well as other associated stresses. Consideration will also occur about how we support local health visiting teams and early years staff to get 'on board' with VIG and how local VIG champions have shaped local referral patterns.

This will be an interactive reflective workshop where delegates own experiences will be welcomed to inform thinking about best practice when working with infants in the perinatal period.

Madeline Marczak is an experienced Clinical Child Psychologist who has worked with children and families for over seven years. Madeline currently divides her time between a clinical and lecturing post. She works as a Clinical Psychologist for the Children and Parent's Service (a 0-5 CAMHS Service in Manchester) as well as being a Clinical Tutor/Lecturer for the Children's and Young People's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies programme (IAPT), affiliated with the University of Manchester. Madeline is also an honorary lecturer for the Lancaster Doctorate in Clinical Psychology programme.

Madeline is passionate about early intervention and believes VIG has a key role as an intervention tool both with families and early years' professionals. Madeline has recently commenced phase 4 of VIG supervisor training and is currently supervising Clinical Psychologists within her Service. Madeline's VIG journey has led her to liaise closely with the neonatal unit at Royal Manchester Children's Hospital to explore care pathways for this group of parents and babies who are at risk of early attachment difficulties as well as with local Manchester Health Visiting Teams to determine how they are developing care-pathways around VIG. Madeline also has experience of using VERP with trainee clinical psychologists

Francesca Nolan is an experienced registered childrens nurse who has worked in the critical care setting for thirteen years, working closely with families going through extreme trauma. Francesca qualified as a Health Visitor last year and now works closely with families with under fives in Central Manchester.

Francesca has experience in recruiting families to VIG and has witnessed the positive effects this has on families. Francesca  works closely with the CAPS team and is developing a care-pathway around VIG. Francesca strongly believes VIG and early intervention lead to much more positive outcomes for children and families.

Sylvia Reyes, Jenny Jarvis and Felicity de Zulueta

Using VIG with the JUCONI approach to reduce violence in families in Ecuador

Felicity will begin by explaining the way that trauma impacts upon attachment and the implications for working with parents and children with traumatic histories.

Sylvia will then present the Juconi method which has been successfully working with parents in extreme poverty and violence in Mexico and Ecuador for the last 20 years.

Jenny has just returned from Ecuador where she has been supervising 9 of the Juconi professionals in Stage 1 of their VIG training.  She will present their work with traumatised families,  exploring the links between the Juconi model and VIG, and also the role and timing of VIG with families where extreme poverty, abuse and neglect are prevalent.

Sylvia Reyes. As a Chartered Educational Psychologist trained within the Tavistock Child and Family Centre, Sylvia has more than 20 years experience working with children and their parents in both educational psychology, family based therapeutic and social care settings.

For 18 years she has worked internationally where she has applied psychological practice to solving psychosocial difficulties associated with violence, trauma and extreme social exclusion and poverty. Sylvia is particularly interested in the impact of distorted attachment relationships in creating responses which may lead children and their parents into cycles of 'double deprivation1 whereby their reactions to distressing experiences create further problems which may entrench and exacerbate their difficulties.

In Ecuador, Sylvia developed a strengths based model of intervention to help disturbed children and their parents living under extremes of stress to improve their life outcomes. The model has been widely and formally recognised for its impact.


(2010) - International Service Human Rights Award for the Defence of Children's Rights

(2007) - Ashoka "Social Entrepreneur" Fellow for development of model of Rehabilitation Work with Families of Street Children

(2005) MBE for Services to Street Children

Jenny Jarvis - See speakers biographies

Dr Felicity de Zulueta was born in Colombia in 1948. She was brought up learning 5 languages in Borneo, Switzerland, Uganda and Lebanon where she took the French Baccalaureat in Philosophy.

In 1966, she went to England to study at University and obtained a degree in Biology at the University of East Anglia followed by a Medical degree in Cambridge and Sheffield  before specialising in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the Maudsley Hospital in London.

With a training in Group Analysis, Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, Systemic Family Therapy and EMDR, Dr de Zulueta first created and headed the Department of Psychotherapy in Charing Cross Hospital in 1984. In 1997, she was appointed to develop and head the Traumatic Stress Service in the Maudsley Hospital. She developed a specialised service for survivors of abuse and refugees suffering from severe complex PTSD. She retired from her post in the NHS in  2011.

Dr F. de Zulueta is an Honorary Senior Lecturer in Kings College London where she first became  interested in the study of Bilingualism: this arose from her discovering that one of her patients was as he put it "mad" in one language and sane in his second language. She subsequently focused on understanding the origins of violence which she wrote about in her book "From Pain to Violence, the traumatic origins of destructiveness". This led her to specialise in the study of psychological trauma as an attachment disorder  and more specifically on the importance of attunement, dissociation and the use of a specific intervention to elicit the traumatic attachment which she is currently investigating.

Her interest in Video Interaction Guidance is based on its focus on attunement and mentalisation, both of which are very important in the healing of complex or developmental traumatic disorders as well as being cost effective and empowering to both its clients and those who apply it.

Dr Felicity de Zulueta is currently an Emeritus Consultant Psychiatrist in Psychotherapy at the Maudsley Hospital and free lance lecturer on the origins of violence, understanding and treating complex post traumatic stress disorder or developmental trauma and the impact of bilingualism on our sense of self and identity.

Dr Debbie Hunter, Dr Ann Hockaday

Video Interaction Guidance as an Intervention for Parents with Learning Disabilities.

Parents with learning disabilities are often multiply disadvantaged and data suggests these families experience very significant levels of health and social inequality compared to other families. Research indicates that between 40 - 60 % of parents with learning disabilities have their children taken away from their care (McConnell & Llewellyn, 2002), and a high number of parents with a learning disability are referred to social workers because of concerns regarding their parenting.  There is a pressing need to develop evidence based interventions that support parents with learning disabilities to improve parenting competencies to meet their children's needs, as is required by National Best Practice Guidance (DoH & DfES, 2007; DoH, 2009).

The workshop will begin by exploring the theoretical rationale for offering Video Interaction to parents with a learning disability and discuss some of the reasons it is especially well suited to the needs of this group of parents

A number of case studies to illustrate how the service use's Video Interaction Guidance therapy with parents will be presented. Examples of work from our Early Intervention Programme, with parents and babies will be highlighted as well as work with parents with older children.

The service is currently developing and trialling a number of outcome and evaluation measures, particularly to evaluate the use of VIG in our Early Intervention Programme and these will be discussed within the workshop.

Finally some of our more general reflections on the use of VIG with parents with a learning disability as well as ways we have tried to adapt the approach to suit the needs of parents additional learning needs will be shared.

Dr Debbie Hunter and Ann Hockaday are Clinical Psychologists working in the Special Parenting Service, Cornwall Foundation Trust.

The Special Parenting Service is a specialist health service dedicated to supporting parents with learning disabilities within Cornwall. The Service was established over twenty years ago and is known nationally for its expertise in the area of assessment and intervention for parents with Learning Disabilities. The Service specialises in offering assessment and intervention for parents who have a learning disability in order to help them gain the parenting skills necessary to safely care for their children. Early assessment, intervention and preventative support is an important goal of the Service. Video Interaction Guidance forms a key component of much of the therapeutic work offered to parents with the entire team now training in the approach.

Debbie is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist and has over twenty years of experience working with children and families in mental health settings. She has led the Special Parenting Service for the past four years. Debbie started her training in Video Interaction Guidance in 2011, and has since become an enthusiastic advocate of the approach and is embarking on her supervisors training.

Ann is an experienced Clinical Psychologist with much experience working with children and families in a range of settings. She is very interested in developing attachment based interventions for parents with learning disabilities. She has completed and published research in the field of Child and Adolescent Mental Health including an evaluation of a service targeting conduct disorders at school and at home.

Debbie and Ann are both interested in integrating attachment based therapies with narrative, compassionate mind and solution focused based approaches to psychological therapy. They have both completed training using the CARE-Index which they are using to evaluate their therapeutic work with parents and infants.

Sophie Kershaw, Alexandra Marinou, Hardey Barnett

VIG in the Family Drug and Alcohol Court:  Developing VIG in assessment as well as intervention

The team at the Family Drug and Alchohol Court (FDAC), Tavistock Clinic, started training in VIG 4 years ago. Since then they have continued to train new recruits and explore how VIG with its supportive values and beliefs can fit in to working in the court child protection arena.

This workshop will introduce you to the way FDAC works to support their clients and explore with you how VIG can fit in as an assessment alongside an intervention.

The FDAC team are looking at the client's potential to develop discipline in managing their addiction, sensitivity to their child, responsivity to their child and the ability to reflect on what they are doing and why. They ask questions around "can they change if they are given help?",  "are they retaining learning?"  and,  "can they put their learning into action?"

Miss Sophie Kershaw, MA in Social Work, Post Graduate Diploma in Social Work,  BA (Hons) in Social Studies, PG Cert in Adolescent Mental Health, PG Cert in Drugs Education.

Sophie Kershaw has been the Service Manager for the Family Drug and Alcohol Court (based at the Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust) since 2008.  Within her managerial and development role she continues to work as a clinician specialising in child protection, and is also accredited in delivering Social Behavioural Network Therapy, Video Interaction Guidance,

Alexandra Marinou is a  Family Mental Health Clinician & Honorary Adult Psychotherapist.  She works as a Family Mental Health Clinician at the Westminster Family Assessment Service (Tavistock Clinic) and as an Honorary Adult Psychotherapist at the Adult Department (Tavistock Clinic). She has previously worked at the Monroe Family Assessment Service at the Tavistock assessing families with complex child protection concerns. Alexandra has a degree in Psychology from the Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences (Greece) where she also started a PhD in Experimental Social Psychology. She has completed an MSc at the Institute of Psychiatry in Child and Adolescent Mental Health (King's College of London) and has attended a year of an MA in Autism Studies at the Tizard Centre (University of Kent). Alexandra has experience in working with children and adolescents with mental health problems in multidisciplinary teams in Greece and in the UK (clinical placements at the Maudsley Hospital SLAM). She has completed a number of training courses in assessing attachment and family relationships. She is a reliable scorer in the Reflective Functioning in the Adult Attachment Interview and an accredited Practitioner in the Video Interaction Guidance evidence based method which aims to promote attunement and parental sensitivity. Alexandra has trained in the Reflective Functioning in the Pregnancy Interview, the Dynamic Maturational Model of Attachment, the Care-INDEX for infants and is  practising the Mentalisation-Based Treatment for Families.

Hardey Barnett graduated with a Bachelors Degree in Social Work & Social Policy in 1996, from the University of Queensland, Australia. In Australia, Hardey worked predominantly with young people most at risk due to substance misuse and behavioral difficulties. This work developed throughout varied roles including early intervention, prevention, treatment and therapeutic interventions for young people and eventually adults, all within the non-statutory and community settings.

Having moved to the UK in 2004, Hardey worked for Islington Children and Families. As a senior social worker within Children Services, he worked predominantly with complex cases subject to court proceedings and has experience of providing court reports and giving evidence. Continuing to develop work within the substance misuse field, he was seconded for a year to support young people and families affected by parental and/or adolescent substance misuse within Islington.

Hardey first joined the FDAC team as a Senior Practitioner in March 2008. FDAC is a multi-disciplinary team undertaking expert assessments and interventions for families affected by alcohol and other drugs. He has been employed as the Deputy Service Manger since April 2014.

Heather McLean and Clare Lancaster

New Families:  VIG in adoption/fostering/kinship carers in Glasgow

Children who are Looked After, or who are Looked After Away from Home by Local Authorities often have histories of difficulties forming attachments to key adults. Glasgow has the highest proportion of Looked After Children in Scotland. Promoting positive outcomes for these children is a key area of work for Educational Psychologists, due to the risks experienced by these children in terms of relationships, behaviour, education, placement continuity, and other vulnerabilities.

Educational Psychologists are continually reflecting on best practice in this area and have looked to Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) as an evidence-based intervention to support attachment. In Glasgow VIG has been used in a variety of contexts, including with children who are Looked After at home, and those who are Looked After Away from Home. It has also been used with adoptive parents to support them to bond with their children and build their new family.

In this workshop we will explore how VIG can be used in the context of children who are Looked After Away from Home, and how this powerful tool can help carers quickly build relationships, both as a preventative strategy to reduce the likelihood of future placement breakdown, and as a way to quickly and effectively strengthen the bonds between the new carer and the child, through promoting attunement, communication and mind-mindedness.

This will be an interactive workshop with case studies used to illustrate how VIG has been used to support children in their new families. Illustrations will be given of how the work has been evaluated and the views of clients on their experiences of VIG.

Heather McLean and Clare Lancaster are Educational Psychologists working in the Glasgow Psychological Service. Heather has worked in the Service for five years, and has been using Video Interaction Guidance as part of her work for the past four years. Clare has worked in the Service for four years, and has been using Video Interaction Guidance as part of her work for the past two years. Heather is currently a Trainee Supervisor, supporting other psychologists and multi-agency partners in establishing the skills, and Clare is currently starting out as a Trainee Supervisor

Glasgow Psychological Service is part of the Education Services of Glasgow City Council, and as part of the staged intervention process, provides a service to children and young people aged 0-24. Over the past two years the service has created a "Therapeutic Intervention Service" (TIS), which offers a number of Therapeutic Interventions, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing, and Video Interaction Guidance. VIG and Video Enhanced Reflective Practice are also being used to build capacity among Psychological Service staff and staff in Educational establishments.

Sandra Strathie, Marie Robertson, Deb Holmes and Anita Heyes

Safeguarding Children: How does VIG contribute?

This workshop will explore the ways in which VIG can support safeguarding in situations where there are concerns about the care and wellbeing of children. This will be through discussion with the workshop presenters facilitated by Sandra Strathie, a social worker with 15 years of experience of using VIG with families.  This workshop will also show video case studies as evidence of the power of VIG to bring about change in families where there are concerns about children, such as neglect, and provide information on VIG's contribution to keeping children safe from harm.

The four presenters, (NSPCC, Mental Health, Family Therapy, Social Work) all have extensive experience in child protection work.   Themes such as:  helping parents to mentalize their children more accurately; building more positive relationships between parents and children; positive outcomes where there is family breakdown or the child is removed; VIG's fit with assessment and VIG in the court arena will all be topics for discussion.

Please come with your own questions and knowledge to share in the workshop.

Sandra Strathie is a Social Worker and National VIG Trainer and Supervisor accredited by AVIGuk.  She is supporting the development of VIG services and training across a number of agencies in the UK, including the NSPCC Glasgow, Glasgow City Council, the Universities of Dundee, Strathclyde, Northumbria, and several voluntary agencies throughout Scotland.    Sandra has contributed to writing and research on the subjects of VIG and VERP including,

1.  'Supporting Vulnerable Families to Change through VIG'. 2011 and

2. 'Explanations for the Success of Video Interaction Guidance (VIG): An Emerging Method in Family Psychotherapy'. 2013

1. Video Interaction Guidance, A Relationship-Based Intervention to Promote Attunement, Empathy and Wellbeing.   Kennedy, Landor and Todd.

2. The Family Journal: Counselling and Therapy for Couples and Families.   Doria, Kennedy, Strathie and Strathie

Marie Robertson works as an independent AVIGuk Advanced Supervisor and Trainer.   She has participated in large VIG projects including training 4 NSPCC Social Workers through all 3 stages of VIG training to practitioner status along with a manager to VERP accreditation.   She co-works as the Registrar alongside Hilary Kennedy as well as manages the membership for the association.   Marie also undertakes independent family risk assessments, working alongside a Social Work colleague, focusing on attachment relationships both parental (reflective functioning) and children, CARE-index, narrative story stems, watch wait and wonder.

Marie has studied Infant Mental Health at the Tavistock and Portman in London on their M9 course and gained a Post Graduate Diploma in Infant Mental Health. Her intention is to continue to year 3 to gain the full MA qualification.

Marie is passionate about VIG and the hopefulness of the model in situations sometimes which are described as hopeless by many, She has been both moved and privileged, at times, to witness and share parents hopes and wishes to change their current situation with a positive outcome.

Deb Holmes is a Family Therapist working as a Specialist Clinician for Cambridgeshire Children, Families and Adult Services.  In Cambridgeshire, Children's Social Care is delivered through the unit model approach; each unit is composed of a Consultant Social Worker, two Social Workers, a Specialist Clinician and a Unit Co-ordinator. Together we are responsible for working with families where children are subject to a Child Protection Plan or a Child in Need Plan. In her role Deb works directly with families to support positive change, to help reduce risk and enable them to reach their potential.  She also provides consultation to Social Workers with regards to their direct work and practice. A number of clinicians have been offered training in VIG and Deb is now in stage 3 of the training. Deb has used VIG with several families on Child Protection or Child in Need Plans and would like to share with you her experiences of how VIG has contributed to safeguarding.

Anita Heyes has worked for the NSPCC as a Children's Services Practitioner for the last three years and has worked as a VIG Practitioner throughout this time and is now a trainee VIG Supervisor. In addition to this Anita also works on a Parents Under Pressure Service which supports families who have a child under 30 months and are on a drug treatment programme or alcohol abstinence/relapse prevention programme. This has allowed her to apply VIG in the context of infant mental health with families in their home.

In addition to this Anita works as a Youth Worker at LGBT Youth Scotland running a mental health drop in and sits on a short term fostering panel for Cornerstone. Following her training as a VIG guider she now recognises how VIG interventions and approaches can enhance relationships and seek out exceptions to build on in all areas of her work.

Prior to this Anita worked as a statutory Social Worker in a Children and Families team and gained a wide range of understanding of the complexities of the difficulties faced. She believes the VIG approach provides a tool to enhance the existing child protection interventions provided and builds on the existing skills of families while building confidence and attunement. She is particularly mindful of the way in which VIG can enhance the child's mental health through building and increasing the existing attuned interactions and how crucial that is to building resilience in the face of adversity.